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Sep132013

PRESENT FINDING SHOWS NIACIN TO CAUSE TYPE II TO TYPE I MUSCLE FIBRE SWITCHING THAT RESULTS IN OXIDATIVE METABOLIC PHENOTYPE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN PIGS AS A FARM ANIMAL MODEL

Niacin supplementation increases the number of oxidative type I fibers in skeletal muscle of growing pigs

Muckta Khan 1, Robert Ringseis 1, Frank-Christoph Mooren 2, Karsten Krüger 2, Erika Most 1 and Klaus Eder 1

1 Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen 35390, Germany

2 Department of Sports Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Kugelberg 62, Giessen 35394, Germany

Abstract

Background

A recent study showed that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber switching from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker Sow and piglet ~ CREDIT: hamperrats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, leading to muscle fiber switching and up-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid import and oxidation, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin supplementation causes type II to type I muscle and changes the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscles in growing pigs.

Results

25 male, 11 wk old crossbred pigs (Danzucht x Pietrain) with an average body weight of 32.8 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD) kg were randomly allocated to two groups of 12 (control group) and 13 pigs (niacin group) which were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 750 mg niacin/kg diet. After 3 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in three different muscles (M. longissismus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris, M. gastrocnemius) was greater in the niacin group and the percentage number of type II fibers was lower in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PGC-1β and genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid catabolism (CACT, FATP1, OCTN2), citrate cycle (SDHA), oxidative phosphorylation (COX4/1, COX6A1), and thermogenesis (UCP3) in M. longissimus dorsi were greater in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

The study demonstrates that niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber switching, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in pigs. Given that oxidative muscle types tend to develop dark, firm and dry pork in response to intense physical activity and/or high psychological stress levels preslaughter, a niacin-induced change in the muscle´s fiber type distribution may influence meat quality of pigs.

CITATION: BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:177 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-177. Published: 9 September 2013

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/177/abstract#

EXTENDED ARTICLE & REFERENCES: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/177

SOURCE: This is an Open Access article courtesy of BioMed Central - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License

PLEASE NOTE: Vitamin, mineral and other nutrient supplementation should only be used on animals under the supervision of a qualified animal therapist. Some supplements can have harmful effects on animals, or specific species, if incorrect dosages are used or poorly understood combinations are given that together could be contraindicated so should not be given without expert, professional advice. Please consult an accredited HATO animal practitioner for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/

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