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Thursday
Oct102013

MODEL SEEKS TO DESCRIBE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES AND HOW THEY RESTORE AN ORGANISM TO HOMEOSTASIS

Like cures like: A neuroimmunological model based on electromagnetic resonance.

Shahabi S, Kasariyans A, Noorbakhsh F.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran.

Abstract

Objectives: Recent investigations have pointed to the production of characteristic electromagnetic (EM) waves in highly diluted sterile filtrates of different microorganisms and their associated DNA molecules. Analysis of these Some raw materials homoeopathic substances are made from ~ CREDIT: Ar291diluted solutions that are prepared using methods almost identical to the way that homeopathic medicines are prepared has pointed to the existence of nanostructures capable of emitting EM waves. Combining these results with findings that point to the interaction of EM waves with sensory nerves with subsequent activation of homeostatic efferent pathways, we propose a model to describe mechanisms underlying the effects of homeopathic remedies. The Model: Living cells and tissues are capable of generating EM waves in their physiological conditions. When a cell deviates from its physiological state, in addition to normal EM emissions, it starts to produce EM waves with altered characteristics. According to our model, the main cause of the therapeutic effects of homeopathic remedies is the occurrence of resonance between the non-physiological EM waves of the patient and extremely low-frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures present in the homeopathic remedy. Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the patient's non-physiological EM waves and those produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar. Once resonance occurs, stimulation of the patient's sensory neurons, which are sensitized due to inflammation of any origin, leads to triggering of different regulatory mechanisms, including the activation of descending antinociceptive and/or cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, which leads to the restoration of homeostasis.

CITATION: Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23343410

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343410

SOURCE: Research article from US National Library of Medicine - Public Domain

PLEASE NOTE: This article has been included here for your interest as homoeopathic remedies are used extensively for both human and animal therapy. However, while there is over 200 years of well documented anecdotal evidence for successful homoeopathic therapy, HATO does not advise this article to be construed as proof of efficacy for homoeopathic remedies. When choosing to use the professional services of an animal homoeopath please consult an accredited HATO animal homoeopath or animal naturopath for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. It requires skilled homoeopathic knowledge and experience to take a comprehensive case, observe accurately how a case unfolds (particularly in chronic cases) to adjust prescriptions accordingly and understand possible blockages that may interfere with a positive outcome. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/

Friday
Oct042013

EVIDENCE FOR HAIR TESTING BEING A VIABLE NON-INVASIVE TEST PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE CUSHING’S DISEASE

The hair of the dog

07-19-2013 -A surprisingly large number of dogs suffer from hyperadrenocorticism.  The symptoms are caused by excessive amounts of hormones – glucocorticoids – in the body.  Unfortunately, though, diagnosis of the disease is complicated by the fact that glucocorticoid levels naturally fluctuate and most methods for measuring the concentration of the hormones in the blood provide only a snapshot of the current situation.  Recent research at the Institute of Medical Biochemistry at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna has shown that glucocorticoids accumulate in the animals’ hair and that analysis of a dog’s hair can provide quick and reliable preliminary diagnosis.  The results are published in the current issue of the journal Veterinary Dermatology.

Dog hair is used to diagnose hyperadrenocorticism ~ CREDIT: Ouschan/Vetmeduni ViennaJust over a century ago, Harvey Cushing published an account of a young woman who showed unusual symptoms because her glands were making excessive amounts of something.  Subsequent research has shown that the thing in question is a set of hormones known as glucocorticoids that are produced by the adrenal glands, so “Cushing’s disease” is now more commonly known as hyperadrenocorticism, at least by those who can pronounce it.  The condition is particularly common in dogs, particularly as the animals grow older.  Most cases result from a tumour in the pituitary gland but some relate to tumours in one of the adrenal glands themselves.

Natural aging or serious disease

One of the main problems with the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism is that the symptoms appear only gradually, so owners and vets are initially likely to overlook them or to attribute them to other causes, such as general old age.  Cushing’s disease is associated with excessive drinking (and urination) and overeating, leading to a pot-bellied appearance, as well as with loss of hair.  All of these symptoms can stem from a wide variety of causes so even when a vet suspects that an animal might have Cushing’s disease it is difficult to be certain.  Unfortunately, the methods commonly used to test for the condition are complicated and costly – and generally only give information about the hormone concentrations at the time a sample is taken, when the animal might have unusually high levels because of the stress associated with the examination.

Analysis of dog hair reveals hormonal imbalance

Claudia Ouschan and colleagues at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna decided to look for a way to monitor the long-term levels of glucocorticoids.  As the hormones are known to be present in hair, at least in humans, Ouschan reasoned that measuring glucocorticoid concentrations in dog hair might represent a way of diagnosing Cushing’s disease without causing the animals unnecessary distress.  She thus compared the levels of cortisol, corticosterone and cortisone in the hair of twelve dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and ten healthy dogs.  The results were striking:  all three hormones were found at far higher levels in the hair of dogs with Cushing’s disease than in the control group, with the increase in cortisol particularly pronounced.

The importance of the finding is clear.  As Ouschan says, “we have shown that the level of cortisol in dogs’ hair is much higher when the animals have hyperadrenocorticism.  Measuring cortisol in hair is so much easier and less painful to the animal than other tests for the disease and we think it has real promise for use as a rapid and non-invasive method to diagnose hyperadrenocorticism.”

CITATION: Ouschan, C., Kuchar, A. and Möstl, E. (2013), Measurement of cortisol in dog hair: a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism. Veterinary Dermatology, 24: 428–e94. doi: 10.1111/vde.12043

Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2013/press-release-07-19-2013-the-hair-of-the-dog/

PAPER ABSTRACT: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/vde.12043/abstract

SOURCE: University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

PLEASE NOTE: While this study was done with dogs it is most likely to have parallels with horses who also suffer Cushing’s disease. Hair analysis is not new to the world of natural, holistic therapy and accredited HATO animal health care therapists that utilise this method frequently obtain insightful readings for specific health disturbances. Please consult an accredited HATO animal practitioner for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/

Friday
Sep272013

WIDELY USED HERB EXTRACT FOUND TO HAVE NO CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY BUT RATHER FAVOURABLE RESPONSES TO REDUCING MAMMARY GLAND CANCERS, LIVER CANCERS & BILE DUCT HYPERPLASIA

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of milk thistle extract (CAS No. 84604-20-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (Feed Studies).

National Toxicology Program.

Collaborators (45)

Dunnick JK, Nyska A, Bishop JB, Bucher JR, Chhabra RS, Foster PM, Herbert RA, Hooth MJ, King-Herbert AP, Kissling GE, Malarkey DE, Roycroft JH, Sanders JM, Singh BP, Smith CS, Travlos GS, Walker NJ, Witt KL, Hébert CD, Heath JE, Mann JF, Hamlin MH 2nd, Allison N, Kolenda-Roberts HM, Peckham JC, Wolfe GW, Seung HS, Brecher S, Iyer S, Tharakan VS, Newbigging S, Dixon D, Elmore SA, Flake GP, Blackshear PE, Hobbie K, Nold JB, Crockett PW, Betz LJ, McGowan KP, Gunnels SR, Hall BF, Harper LM, Powers JI, Serbus DC.

Abstract

Milk thistle extracts have been used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Treatment claims also include lowering cholesterol levels; reducing insulin resistance; reducing the growth of cancer cells in breast, cervical, and prostate gland cancers; and antiviral activity. Other reported uses of milk thistle in folk medicine include as a treatment for malarial fever, bronchitis, gallstones, jaundice, peritonitis, uterine congestion, varicose veins, and as a milk production stimulant for nursing mothers. The roots soaked in water overnight are used in food, and the despined leaves are added to salads. Roasted milk thistle fruit has been used as a coffee substitute.Silybum marianum (commonly known as Milk Thistle & St Mary's Thistle) ~ CREDIT: H. Zell; Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported  Milk thistle extract was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences because it is one of the most widely used herbs in the United States. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to an ethanol/water extract of milk thistle fruit (milk thistle extract) containing approximately 65% silymarin in feed for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,125, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 260, 525, 1,050, 2,180, or 4,500 mg milk thistle extract/kilogram body weight to males and 260, 510, 1,050, 2,150, or 4,550 mg/kg to females) for 14 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of exposed groups were within 10% of those of the controls. Feed consumption by exposed and control groups was similar. The sperm motility in 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm males was decreased by 5%, 11%, and 9%, respectively, relative to that of the controls; the total number of spermatid heads per testis decreased by 11%, 21%, and 9% in 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm males. No significant differences in estrous cyclicity were observed between exposed and control groups of female rats. No exposure-related histopathologic lesions were observed. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 3,125, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 640, 1,340, 2,500, 5,280, or 11,620 mg/kg to males and 580, 1,180, 2,335, 4,800, or 9,680 mg/kg to females) for 14 weeks. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights and feed consumption of all exposed groups were similar to those of the controls. Absolute and relative thymus weights were significantly decreased in 25,000 and 50,000 ppm males. No significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups, for sperm parameters of male mice, for estrous cyclicity of female mice, or for reproductive organ weights of male or female mice, when mice were administered milk thistle extract in feed at 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm. No exposure-related histopathologic lesions were observed. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 570, 1,180, or 2,520 mg/kg to males and 630, 1,300, or 2,750 mg/kg to females) for 105 to 106 weeks. Exposure to milk thistle extract had no effect on survival of male or female rats. Mean body weights of all exposed groups were similar to those of the controls throughout the study. Feed consumption by exposed groups of males and females was generally similar to that by the controls throughout the study. Significantly decreased incidences of mammary gland fibroadenoma, adenoma, or carcinoma (combined) occurred in females exposed to 25,000 or 50,000 ppm. Significantly increased incidences of clear cell and mixed cell focus of the liver occurred in 25,000 and 50,000 ppm females. The incidences of bile duct hyperplasia were significantly decreased in 50,000 ppm males and in all exposed groups of females, and the incidence of mixed inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly decreased in 50,000 ppm males. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 1,610, 3,530, or 7,770 mg/kg to males and 1,500, 3,175, or 7,180 mg/kg to females) for 105 to 106 weeks. Exposure to milk thistle extract had no effect on survival of male or female mice. The mean body weights of the 25,000 ppm groups were less than those of controls after week 25; mean body weights of 50,000 ppm groups were less than those of controls after week 12. Feed consumption by exposed groups of males and females was generally similar to that by the controls throughout the study. Significantly decreased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in 50,000 ppm males, and decreased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) occurred in 25,000 and 50,000 ppm males.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY:

Five milk thistle extracts were tested independently in bacterial mutagenicity studies using a variety of S. typhimurium tester strains and one E. coli strain. Results were negative in three of the five studies, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. In two studies, milk thistle extract was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation enzymes. Silymarin, a major constituent of milk thistle extract, was positive in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, when testing occurred in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation enzymes. Silybin, another component of milk thistle extract, was negative in a S. typhimurium gene mutation assay, with and without liver S9 activation enzymes. Administration of milk thistle extract in feed for 3 months did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes, an indication of chromosomal abnormalities, in the peripheral blood of male or female B6C3F1 mice.

CONCLUSIONS:

Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of milk thistle extract in male or female F344/N rats or B6C3F1 mice exposed to 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm. Exposure to milk thistle extract resulted in increased incidences of clear cell and mixed cell foci in the liver of female rats and decreases in body weights of exposed groups of male and female mice. Decreased incidences of mammary gland neoplasms occurred in exposed groups of female rats, and decreased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms occurred in exposed groups of male mice.

CITATION: Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 2011 May;(565):1-177.  PMID: 21685957 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685957

SOURCE: Research article from US National Library of Medicine - Public Domain

PLEASE NOTE: Medicinal herbs, plants, extracts and tinctures, essential or therapeutic oils and other mediums should only be used on animals under the supervision of a qualified animal therapist. Some of these substances can have harmful effects on animals, or specific species, and should not be given without expert, professional advice. Please consult an accredited HATO animal practitioner for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/

Friday
Sep202013

EXCITING NEW RESEARCH INTO AUSSIE NATIVE PLANTS THAT OFFER PROMISE FOR ALTERNATIVE GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITE CONTROL IN HORSES

Australian plants show anthelmintic activity toward equine cyathostomins in vitro.

Payne SE, Kotze AC, Durmic Z, Vercoe PE.

School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. 

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal parasites of horses is an increasing problem, particularly in cyathostomins, and there is a need to find alternative means for the control of these parasites. We screened crude extracts from 37 species of Australian native plants for their anthelmintic activity in vitro against cyathostomin larvae (development from egg to third larval stage), with the aim of identifying those species that may be suitable for incorporation into sustainable parasite management programs. Water extracts from seven species, namely Acacia baileyana, Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood; Black Sally) ~ CREDIT: Arthur Chapman; flickr, CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 GenericAcacia melanoxylon, Acacia podalyriifolia, Alectryon oleifolius, Duboisia hopwoodii, Eucalyptus gomphocephala and Santalum spicatum completely inhibited larval development (100% inhibition compared to the control), while another 10 species caused 90% inhibition at the initial screening concentration of 1400 μg of extractable solids/mL. The seven most potent extracts produced IC50 values (concentration of extract which resulted in a 50% inhibition of development) in the range 30.9-196 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts were incubated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) before the assays, which removed the anthelmintic activity from 12 of these extracts, indicating that tannins were likely to be the bioactive compound responsible for the effect, while in two species, i.e. A. melanoxylon and D. hopwoodii, compounds other than tannins were likely to be responsible for their anthelmintic action. Our results suggest that a number of Australian native plants have significant anthelmintic activity against cyathostomin larval development in vitro. There is potential for these plants to be used as part of sustainable parasite control programs in horses, although more research is needed to identify the compounds responsible for the anthelmintic effects and confirm their activity in vivo.

CITATION: Vet Parasitol. 2013 Sep 1;196(1-2):153-60. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.01.012. Epub 2013 Jan 23. PMID: 23394801

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394801

SOURCE: Research article from US National Library of Medicine - Public Domain

PLEASE NOTE: Medicinal herbs, plants, extracts and tinctures, essential or therapeutic oils and other mediums should only be used on animals under the supervision of a qualified animal therapist. Some of these substances can have harmful effects on animals, or specific species, and should not be given without expert, professional advice. Please consult an accredited HATO animal practitioner for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/

Friday
Sep132013

PRESENT FINDING SHOWS NIACIN TO CAUSE TYPE II TO TYPE I MUSCLE FIBRE SWITCHING THAT RESULTS IN OXIDATIVE METABOLIC PHENOTYPE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN PIGS AS A FARM ANIMAL MODEL

Niacin supplementation increases the number of oxidative type I fibers in skeletal muscle of growing pigs

Muckta Khan 1, Robert Ringseis 1, Frank-Christoph Mooren 2, Karsten Krüger 2, Erika Most 1 and Klaus Eder 1

1 Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen 35390, Germany

2 Department of Sports Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Kugelberg 62, Giessen 35394, Germany

Abstract

Background

A recent study showed that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber switching from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker Sow and piglet ~ CREDIT: hamperrats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, leading to muscle fiber switching and up-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid import and oxidation, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin supplementation causes type II to type I muscle and changes the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscles in growing pigs.

Results

25 male, 11 wk old crossbred pigs (Danzucht x Pietrain) with an average body weight of 32.8 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD) kg were randomly allocated to two groups of 12 (control group) and 13 pigs (niacin group) which were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 750 mg niacin/kg diet. After 3 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in three different muscles (M. longissismus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris, M. gastrocnemius) was greater in the niacin group and the percentage number of type II fibers was lower in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PGC-1β and genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid catabolism (CACT, FATP1, OCTN2), citrate cycle (SDHA), oxidative phosphorylation (COX4/1, COX6A1), and thermogenesis (UCP3) in M. longissimus dorsi were greater in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

The study demonstrates that niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber switching, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in pigs. Given that oxidative muscle types tend to develop dark, firm and dry pork in response to intense physical activity and/or high psychological stress levels preslaughter, a niacin-induced change in the muscle´s fiber type distribution may influence meat quality of pigs.

CITATION: BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:177 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-177. Published: 9 September 2013

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/177/abstract#

EXTENDED ARTICLE & REFERENCES: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/177

SOURCE: This is an Open Access article courtesy of BioMed Central - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License

PLEASE NOTE: Vitamin, mineral and other nutrient supplementation should only be used on animals under the supervision of a qualified animal therapist. Some supplements can have harmful effects on animals, or specific species, if incorrect dosages are used or poorly understood combinations are given that together could be contraindicated so should not be given without expert, professional advice. Please consult an accredited HATO animal practitioner for assurance of safe, optimal animal health. We invite you to browse our practitioner listing, under ‘Search Members’ on this website, to select an appropriate practitioner for your pet and livestock needs: http://www.hato.com.au/members/