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Role of quercetin and arginine in ameliorating nano zinc oxide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Laila M Faddah 1, Nayira A Abdel Baky 1 3, Nouf M Al-Rasheed 1, Nawal M Al-Rasheed 1, Amal J Fatani 1 and Muhammad Atteya 2

1 Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 Anatomy Department and Stem Cell Unit, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 22452, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia 



Nanoparticles are small-scale substances (<100 nm) with unique properties. Therefore, nanoparticles pose complex health risk implications. The objective of this study was to detect whether treatment with quercetin (Qur) and/or arginine (Arg) ameliorated nephrotoxicity induced by two different doses of nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) particles.

Animals dissected kidney ~ Credit: Sunshineconnelly; Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 UnportedMethod

ZnO nanoparticles were administered orally in two doses (either 600 mg or 1 g/Kg body weight/day for 5 conscutive days) to Wister albino rats. In order to detect the protective effects of the studied antioxidants against n-ZnO induced nepherotoxicity, different biochemical parameters were investigated. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney tissue was performed.


Nano zinc oxide-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed by the elevation in serum inflammatory markers including: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6); and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, immunoglobulin (IGg), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased in rat serum. Serum urea and creatinine levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with n-ZnO particles compared with the control group. Additionally, a significant decrease in the non-enzymatic antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) was shown in kidney tissues and serum glucose levels were increased. These biochemical findings were supported by a histopathological examination of kidney tissues, which showed that in the animals that received a high dose of n-ZnO, numerous kidney glomeruli underwent atrophy and fragmentation. Moreover, the renal tubules showed epithelial desquamation, degeneration and necrosis. Some renal tubules showed casts in their lumina. Severe congestion was also observed in renal interstitium. These effects were dose dependent. Cotreatment of rats with Qur and/or Arg along with n-ZnO significantly improved most of the deviated tested parameters.


The data show that Qur has a beneficial effect against n-ZnO oxidative stress and related vascular complications. Also, its combination with Arg proved to be even more effective in ameliorating nano zinc oxide nephrotoxicity.

CITATION: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:60 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-60. Published: 2 May 2012


SOURCE: Open Access article from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine provided here courtesy of BioMed Central



Effect of a probiotic fermented milk on the thymus in Balb/c mice under non-severe protein–energy malnutrition

Ivanna Novotny Núñez a1, Carolina Maldonado Galdeanoa 1 a2, Esteban Carmuega a3, Ricardo Weill a4, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanca 1 and Gabriela Perdigón a1 a2 

a1 Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA-CONICET), Chacabuco 145, San Miguel de Tucumán (T4000ILC) Tucumán, Argentina

a2 Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Microbiología, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina

a3 Center of Studies on Infant Nutrition (CESNI), Buenos Aires, Argentina

a4 Departamento de investigación y Desarrollo, DANONE Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina


Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) causes a significant impairment of the immune system, the thymus being one of the most affected organs. It has been demonstrated that the administration of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) recovered the intestinal barrier, histological alterations and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a non-severe malnutrition model using BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in the same model Fermented milk ~ Credit: Kagor; Wikimedia Commons, GNU Free Documentation Licenseof malnutrition, the effect of a PFM added to a re-nutrition diet on the recovery of the thymus, analysing histological and functional alterations caused by malnutrition. Mice were undernourished and divided into three groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition: milk, PFM or its bacterial-free supernatant (BFS). They were compared with well-nourished and malnourished mice. PFM was the most effective re-nutrition supplement to improve the histology of the thymus, decreasing cellular apoptosis in this organ and recovering the percentage of CD4+/CD8 single-positive thymocytes. Immature double-positive thymocytes were increased in the malnourished control (MC). The production of different cytokines in the thymus was increased in mice given PFM, compared with the mice that received other dietary supplements and MC. Mice given the BFS presented an improvement in the thymus similar to those that received milk. We demonstrated the importance of the whole PFM supplementation on the histological and functional recovery of the thymus in a non-severe PEM model.

CITATION:  Ivanna Novotny Núñez, Carolina Maldonado Galdeano, Esteban Carmuega, Ricardo Weill, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc and Gabriela Perdigón (2013). Effect of a probiotic fermented milk on the thymus in Balb/c mice under non-severe protein–energy malnutrition. British Journal of Nutrition, 110, pp 500-508. doi:10.1017/S0007114512005302.

SOURCE: Article courtesy of Cambridge University Press



Amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis by Salix nigra bark extract via suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

Sharma S, Sahu D, Das HR, Sharma D.
School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India. 


Our study goals to investigate the anti-arthritic potential of Salix nigra bark methanol extract (SNME) against both inflammation and oxidative stress in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Results showed that SNME exhibited maximum scavenging activity against superoxide, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxideSynovitis/Arthritis swine hock joint ~ Credit: R.L. Wood; Wikimedia Commons; Public Domainradicals along with the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Female wistar rats were immunized with porcine type II collagen and treated with SNME (100 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days starting on day 20. SNME significantly inhibited the paw swelling and arthritic score; exhibited maximum CIA inhibition of 93.7% by the end of the experimental period. Administration of SNME to arthritic rats significantly improved the histological findings in joints as evident by reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and smooth synovial lining. Roentgenograms of tibiotarsal joints of both SNME and indomethacin-treated rats showed protection against osteophyte formation, soft tissue swelling and bone resorption. Furthermore, levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) measured in both plasma and joint exudates were significantly reduced by SNME treatment. Increased oxidative stress observed in the arthritic animals was also found to be significantly restored in SNME- treated rats. Taken together, our studies clearly indicate the potential of S. nigra as an anti-arthritic agent.

CITATION:  Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Dec;49(12):3395-406. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.08.013. Epub 2011 Sep 29.
CREDIT: Research article sourced from US National Library of Medicine - Public Domain 



Anti-inflammatory effects of Clematis chinensis Osbeck extract(AR-6) may be associated with NF-κB, TNF-α, and COX-2 in collagen-induced arthritis in rat.

Peng C, Perera PK, Li YM, Fang WR, Liu LF, Li FW.
Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.


The root of Clematis chinensis Osbeck has been used widely in rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese traditional medicine, and AR-6 is a triterpene saponin isolated from it. In this present study, we investigated the in vivo effects of oral AR-6 in chronic rat with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and possible molecular mechanism. CIA was induced by immunizing 56 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with chicken typeIIcollagen (CII). FollowingHeaven & Earth Chinese Traditional Medicine Yin-Yang Symbol ~ Credit: Beartales; Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain eighteen days, the immunization rats with CIA were treated with AR-6 (32, 16, 8 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (7 mg/kg), and TGP (Total Glucosides of Paeonia) (180 mg/kg) for 7 days, and rats without CIA were given the same volume of purified water. TNF-α and IL-1β levels in peripheral blood will be measured by ELISA, and Western blot analysis will be used to detect the expression of NF-κB p65 subunits, TNF-α and COX-2, in synovial membrane. We found that therapeutic treatment with AR-6 markedly improves the paw swelling and histopathological changes. Moreover, the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were markedly lowered, and the expression of NF-κB p65 subunits, TNF-α and COX-2, in the synovial membrane of CIA rats was significantly inhibited in the AR-6-treated groups. These results enable to prove that AR-6 has a potential anti-inflammatory effect in CIA rats, and its mechanism may relate to the inhibition of the expression of NF-κB p65 subunits, TNF-α and COX-2.

CITATION: Rheumatol Int. 2012 Oct;32(10):3119-25. Epub 2011 Sep 20.
CREDIT: Research article sourced from US National Library of Medicine - Public Domain


  • The value of the qualitative inquiry in CAM research lies in the in-depth understanding of complex individual details that are not captured by standardized methods.
  • CAM qualitative studies cannot be easily retrieved from CAM databases
  • Searching with broad text terms was the most effective search strategy in all databases.

How to locate and appraise qualitative research in complementary and alternative medicine

Brigitte Franzel, Martina Schwiegershausen, Peter Heusser and Bettina Berger

Center for Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Witten/Herdecke, Gerhard Kienle Weg 4, Herdecke D-58313, Germany



The aim of this publication is to present a case study of how to locate and Hands at keyboard ~ Credit: xeniaappraise qualitative studies for the conduct of a meta-ethnography in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM is commonly associated with individualized medicine. However, one established scientific approach to the individual, qualitative research, thus far has been explicitly used very rarely. This article demonstrates a case example of how qualitative research in the field of CAM studies was identified and critically appraised.


Several search terms and techniques were tested for the identification and appraisal of qualitative CAM research in the conduct of a meta-ethnography. Sixty-seven electronic databases were searched for the identification of qualitative CAM trials, including CAM databases, nursing, nutrition, psychological, social, medical databases, the Cochrane Library and DIMDI.


9578 citations were screened, 223 articles met the pre-specified inclusion criteria, 63 full text publications were reviewed, 38 articles were appraised qualitatively and 30 articles were included. The search began with PubMed, yielding 87% of the included publications of all databases with few additional relevant findings in the specific databases. CINHAL and DIMDI also revealed a high number of precise hits. Although CAMbase and CAM-QUEST® focus on CAM research only, almost no hits of qualitative trials were found there. Searching with broad text terms was the most effective search strategy in all databases.


This publication presents a case study on how to locate and appraise qualitative studies in the field of CAM. The example shows that the literature search for qualitative studies in the field of CAM is most effective when the search is begun in PubMed followed by CINHAL or DIMDI using broad text terms. Exclusive CAM databases delivered no additional findings to locate qualitative CAM studies.

CITATION: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:125 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-125. Published: 3 June 2013

Extended Article:

CREDIT: This is an Open Access article courtesy of BioMed Central - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License



Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

Renah Boanerges de Q Pimentel1, Cristovão A da Costa2, Patrícia M Albuquerque1,3 and Sergio D Junior1,3

1. Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Av. Carvalho Leal, 1777, Manaus, AM, 69.065-170, Brazil

2. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Manaus, AM, 69.060-000, Brazil

3. Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Laboratório de Química Aplicada à Tecnologia, Av. Darcy Vargas, 1200, Manaus, AM, 69050-020, Brazil



Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, Stingless bees at work ~ Credit: William Cho; Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Genericwhich are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds.


Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm.


Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee.


Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

CITATION: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:151 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-151. Published: 1 July 2013

Extended article:

CREDIT: This is an Open Access article courtesy of BioMed Central - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License